Type 2 diabetes: Important points to pay attention to

Type 2 diabetes: Important points to pay attention to

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. If not diagnosed and treated properly, type 2 diabetes can cause serious problems or even death.

To ensure your health and prevent harmful complications from the disease, Health Life For You invites you to immediately refer to the important points in the following article.

What is type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes (also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes) is a chronic disease that occurs when blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body are too high.

If you have type 2 diabetes, also called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes, your body still produces enough insulin or uses insulin properly. Contrary to type 1 diabetes ( The pancreas is unable to secrete insulin), in people with type 2 diabetes, the pancreas works as it should, but for some reason the cells cannot use the glucose in the blood as an energy source. This will lead to high blood sugar and can damage your body.

90% to 95% of diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes usually begins in adults, aged 40 years or older. However, an increasing number of children and young people are developing type 2 diabetes due to an increasing trend in childhood obesity.

Why do you have type 2 diabetes

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Before determining the cause of type 2 diabetes, you need to understand how the body's glucose metabolism works.

1. Glucose metabolism

Saliva and stomach contents convert the food you eat into glucose (a form of sugar), which is the main source of energy for the body's cells. The liver also stores some sugar, but in the form of glycogen. If you do not eat enough or when blood glucose levels are too low, glycogen will be converted into glucose for the body to use.

Blood vessels absorb sugar and transport it to cells, but cells cannot use this energy source without the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. The pancreas receives a signal that glucose is present in your blood and produces more insulin. By allowing glucose to be absorbed into the cells, insulin lowers blood sugar and thus, the pancreas produces insulin.

2. Improper use of insulin

If cells don't recognize insulin, the hormone won't be able to help cells use glucose for energy. As a result, glucose stays in the blood and accumulates over time. The pancreas receives a signal to secrete more insulin due to elevated blood sugar levels, while the cells cannot use it to absorb glucose. This disorder causes the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

Researchers are still searching for complete information about the causes of type 2 diabetes. However, it is safe to say that being overweight is a major risk factor for non-insulin dependent diabetes.

Can you get other diseases with type 2 diabetes

A possible complication of untreated chronic diabetes in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is necrosis, which can lead to disability. Without proper treatment and control of the disease, the body's cells cannot absorb glucose from the blood and will gradually die. Necrosis usually occurs in the lower part of the body.

In addition to gangrene, you may have a serious disorder called diabetic ketoacidosis. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the body accumulates substances (ketones). Ketones in the blood make the blood acidic, affect many organs including the brain and can be life-threatening, if not detected and treated quickly.

Other fatal complications of diabetes are:

Heart disease: Diabetes significantly increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke, and narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis). ) and high blood pressure.

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Neuropathy: A buildup of too much sugar can damage the walls of the small blood vessels (capillaries) that feed your nerves, especially in your legs. This condition can cause tingling, numbness, burning, or pain, usually at the tips of your toes or fingers and spreading up your body. Poorly controlled blood sugar can cause you to completely lose feeling in your extremities. Damage to the nerves that affect the digestive tract can cause problems such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, it can lead to erectile dysfunction.

Kidney disease: The kidneys contain millions of small blood vessels to filter waste out of the blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Eye damage: Type 2 diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), potentially leading to blindness. Diabetes also increases the risk of other serious vision problems, such as cataracts and glaucoma.

Foot injury: Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the legs increases the risk of various diabetic foot complications. Without treatment, cuts and blisters can become severely infected, often difficult to heal, and may eventually require amputation of the toe, foot, or leg.

Skin and mouth disease: Diabetes can make you more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.

Complications in pregnancy: High blood sugar can be dangerous for both mother and baby. You have a higher risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and birth defects when your diabetes is not well controlled. For the mother, type 2 diabetes also increases the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic retinopathy, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia.

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Hopefully, through the above reading, you have a better understanding of Type 2 diabetes: Important points to pay attention to as well as this measure to balance. Stay tuned for new articles of Health Life For You to update useful information about Type 2 Diabetes !

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>>> You can refer to: Prediabetes

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